Where Reindeer Are a Way of Life


KAUTOKEINO, Norway — Reindeer herding isn’t a job for a lot of Sami, an indigenous individuals of fewer than 140,000 who inhabit principally the northern reaches of Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia. It is a approach of life.

Jovsset Ante Sara, a boyish-looking 26-year-old, is aware of the tundra as if it have been a metropolis grid, each hill and valley acquainted, the land acquired over generations by way of the meticulous work of his ancestors.

He can inform his reindeer from any others by their distinctive earmark. And he and his household want them to stay and protect their declare to the land in addition to their traditions.

That’s why, Mr. Sara says, he has refused to abide by Norwegian legal guidelines, handed greater than a decade in the past, that restrict the scale of reindeer herds. The measure was taken, the federal government says, to stop overgrazing.

Mr. Sara’s herd was capped at 75. So yearly, if the herd grows, he should pare it down. At least, these are the foundations. He has refused to cull his 350 to 400 reindeer, and took the federal government to courtroom.

“I sued because I could not accept to see my culture die,” he stated.

He misplaced his case earlier than the Supreme Court and has gathered fines of $60,000, with the menace of shedding his land hanging over him.

The authorities has given him to the tip of this 12 months to conform or he’ll start to build up extra fines, and ultimately might lose his reindeer.

The case is only one of the various battles the Sami of Norway have fought over a lengthy historical past with the federal government to protect their tradition and approach of life.

The Sami have been colonized by Christian missionaries, compelled to desert their shamanistic methods and assimilate. Grim tales of Sami youngsters being despatched to boarding colleges and studied by anthropologists in dehumanizing methods stay a stain on the historical past of the Nordic nations.

Today the Sami of Norway quantity roughly 55,000, with 10 p.c instantly concerned in reindeer herding. The reindeer inhabitants in Norway is estimated at 220,000. Herders earn a residing by promoting reindeer for meat in addition to for his or her hides.

“When we kill the reindeer, we use every part of the animal,” Mr. Sara stated.

The skins are remodeled into mittens and slipper-like footwear that curl up on the tip. The meat is bought on a broad scale throughout Norway and in addition exported. Antlers are pulverized into a Viagra-like drug bought on the Chinese market.

The Norwegian authorities has been making an attempt to erase the errors of the previous, and so at the moment, the Sami have their very own college, colleges that educate the Sami language, and even their very own Parliament, if largely symbolic.

Kautokeino is in Finnmark county in Norway, thought-about the center of Sapmi, or “the land of Sami.” At an Easter pageant this 12 months, younger individuals beat on drums whereas listening to conventional Sami yoiking, a guttural name that was forbidden throughout colonization. They wore conventional clothes generally known as Gakti, and sipped on Red Bull and beer.

Elle Márjá Eira, 34, is a reindeer herder, singer, filmmaker and mom of two. She can recall tales of compelled assimilation, and even burnings by missionaries.

Although many older Sami have maintained a Christian religion, Ms. Eira is an element of a youthful era who’ve actively opposed discrimination and industrial initiatives, which the Sami see as a fixed menace to their approach of life.

Her father, Per Henrik Eira, 56, collectively along with his fellow herders, just lately sued a authorities vitality undertaking led by Statnett, the government-owned electrical firm, which they are saying is threatening to overhaul a massive portion of their summer time grazing lands.

He and his neighbors misplaced the case. Statnett says its undertaking doesn’t threaten Sami tradition.

Ms. Eira disagrees.

“When we lose this pasture,” she stated, “we will need to find another place to calve, a place which is not occupied with other herds. By pushing us into smaller areas, they are forcing us into conflicts with each other.”

She and different Sami voice comparable arguments in opposition to the legal guidelines limiting the scale of herds.

“The problem is that the government doesn’t say exactly who has to kill their reindeer,” Ms. Eira stated. “It just leaves it up to the family.”

She continued: “Even my 15-year-old daughter has her own reindeer. We all do. My father has decided that he will pare down the herd starting only from his reindeer, to avoid conflicts.”

Many Sami reindeer herders see the quotas as an effort by the federal government to restrict their livelihood so it could possibly use the land for industrial initiatives.

Ninety-five p.c of the land in Finnmark county is owned by the state, though Sami reindeer herders, who maintain authorized grazing rights, use a lot of it.

For a long time, the Norwegian authorities has designated reindeer herding as an solely Sami exercise, offering herding licenses tied to ancestral lands.

The rules limiting herd sizes have been handed in 2007, forcing Sami to remove 30 p.c of their reindeer on the time.

Mr. Sara stated the bounds have been devastating. If he obeyed the restrict, he stated, he would make solely $four,700 to $6,000 a 12 months.

“Clearly it’s not possible to make a living as the job has become quite expensive, requiring snowmobiles and all the equipment that goes along with that,” he stated.

The legislation additionally states that any herders who’re not worthwhile can lose their license. But that’s not all Mr. Sara stated he would lose.

“I would lose everything my ancestors worked their entire lives to create for us today,” he stated. “I will lose the land.”

To name consideration to her brother’s case, his sister, Maret Anne, an artist, piled 200 heads of freshly slaughtered reindeer onto the snow-covered garden of the courthouse in Tana in 2014. She topped off the grisly pyramid with a Norwegian flag. Mr. Sara gained, twice, in native and regional courts.

Last fall, when he stood earlier than the Norwegian Supreme Court, his sister strung a curtain of 400 reindeer skulls in entrance of the nation’s Parliament.

Mr. Sara and his lawyer, Trond Pedersen Biti, have taken their case to the Human Rights Council of the United Nations in Geneva.

“It’s my only option,” he stated.

Others are extra fatalistic, like Mr. Eira, who sued to attempt to block the Statnett undertaking, and misplaced. His 18-year-old son, Per John, is following in his father’s footsteps, coaching to be a reindeer herder.

“If I lose this case, I won’t have the courage to face my son,” he advised the courtroom, “because I will be forced to tell him that there is no future for us.”



Source link Nytimes.com

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